Understanding Medical Bill Collection Laws: A Guide for 2022

Medical bill collection laws can be complex and confusing to navigate, both for healthcare providers and patients alike. In 2022, several laws and regulations govern the process of medical debt collection in order to protect consumers and ensure fair practices. This blog post aims to provide an overview of medical bill collection laws in 2022, shedding light on key aspects that both healthcare providers and patients should be aware of.

Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA)

The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) is a federal law in the United States that sets guidelines for fair debt collection practices. While it doesn’t exclusively focus on medical debt, it applies to medical bill collection agencies. Under the FDCPA, debt collectors must follow specific rules, such as:

  • Contacting debtors: Debt collectors cannot harass or intimidate debtors, use abusive language, or engage in deceptive practices when attempting to collect medical debts.
  • Validation of debts: Debt collectors are required to provide written validation of the debt within five days of initial contact. This includes information about the debt, the original creditor, and the debtor’s rights.
  • Cease and desist: If a debtor requests that the debt collector cease communication, the collector must comply, except to inform the debtor about specific actions, such as a lawsuit.

Statute of Limitations

Each jurisdiction has a statute of limitations that sets a time limit for initiating legal action to collect a debt. In medical bill collection, the statute of limitations can vary from state to state and is typically measured from the date of the last activity or payment on the debt. It’s crucial for patients to be aware of their state’s statute of limitations, as debt collectors cannot legally pursue debts that have exceeded the applicable time limit.

Credit Reporting

Medical debts can have a significant impact on a patient’s credit report. However, in 2022, there have been some changes regarding credit reporting of medical debt. The three major credit reporting agencies in the United States—Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion—have implemented the following practices:

  • Waiting period: There is now a 180-day waiting period before medical debts can appear on a credit report. This allows for insurance-related delays and gives patients more time to address billing disputes.
  • Removal of paid-off debts: If a medical debt is paid by insurance or the patient, it must be removed from the credit report, helping prevent long-term negative effects.

Billing and Transparency

Medical bill collection laws also emphasize transparency and accuracy in billing practices. Healthcare providers should ensure that billing statements are clear, itemized, and provide a breakdown of the services rendered, along with corresponding charges. Patients have the right to request an itemized bill and should carefully review their bills for any potential errors or discrepancies.

Financial Assistance and Charity Care

In order to assist patients who are unable to afford medical bills, many healthcare providers offer financial assistance programs or charity care. These programs are designed to help patients who meet specific income criteria or demonstrate financial hardship. Patients should inquire about such programs and explore available options for assistance, which can potentially reduce or eliminate their medical debts.


Navigating medical bill collection laws can be challenging, but understanding the regulations in place is crucial for both healthcare providers and patients. The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act provides guidelines for debt collection agencies, while statutes of limitations, credit reporting changes, billing transparency, and financial assistance programs are all important factors to consider in the context of medical debt.

It’s essential for patients to be aware of their rights and options when dealing with medical bills, while healthcare providers should adhere to these laws and ensure transparent and fair billing practices. By fostering a better understanding of medical bill collection laws in 2022, we can strive for a system that is more equitable and supportive for all parties involved. For more information on laws and regulations, please consult with our dedicated biller today!

Leave a Reply